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2019小学三年级英语语法大全

2019-11-30 21:11

来源:新东方网整理

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  一、名词复数规则

  1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds 2.以 s. x. sh. ch 结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches 3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变 y 为 i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries 4.以“f 或 fe”结尾,变 f 或 fe 为 v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives 5.不规则名词复数:

  man----men, Policeman----policemen, foot----feet,. People----people,

  woman----women, policewoman----policewomen, Tooth----teeth Japanese----Japanese

  Chinese----Chinese, child----children fish-----fish, mouse----mice

  二、一般现在时

  一般现在时基本用法介绍

  一般现在时的功能 1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。 2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我每天六点起床。 3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。 一般现在时的构成 1. be 动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如:I am a boy.我是一个男孩。 2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:We study English.我们学习英语。 当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese. 玛丽喜欢汉语。 一般现在时的变化 1. be 动词的变化。 否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。 一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。

  如:-Are you a student?

  -Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.

  特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?

  2. 行为动词的变化。

  否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:I don't like bread. 当主语为第三人称单数时,要用 doesn't 构成否定句。如:He doesn't often play. 一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。如: - Do you often play football? - Yes, I do. / No, I don't.

  当主语为第三人称单数时,要用 does 构成一般疑问句。如: - Does she go to work by bike? - Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.

  特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:How does your father go to work? 3. 动词+s 的变化规则 1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks 2.以 s. x. sh. ch. o 结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes 3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变 y 为 i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

  三、现在进行时

  1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正 在进行的动作。 2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为 be+动词 ing. 如: I am watching TV.

  3.现在进行时的否定句在 be 后加 not。 如: I am not watching TV. 4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把 be 动词调到句首。 如: Are you watching TV ? 5.现在进行时的特殊疑问的基本结构为: 疑问词 + be + 主语 + 动词 ing? 但疑问词当主语时其结构为: 疑问词 + be + 动词 ing? 动词加 ing 的变化规则 1.一般情况下,直接加 ing,如:cook-cooking 2.以不发音的 e 结尾,去 e 加 ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting 3. 如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母, 双写末尾的辅音字母, 再加 ing, 如: run-running, stop-stopping

  如:What are you doing?

  如: Who is singing there?

  四、将来时

  1、概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。句中一般有以下时 间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。

  2、基本结构:①be going to + do; ②will+ do.

  3、否定句:在 be 动词(am, is, are)后加 not 或情态动词 will 后加 not 成 won’t。 例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon.

  4、一般疑问句: be 或 will 提到句首,some 改为 any, and 改为 or,第一二人称互换。 例如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend. → Are you going to go on an outing this weekend?

  5、对划线部分提问。一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。 (1).问人。Who 例如:I’m going to New York soon. →Who’s going to New York soon. (2).问干什么。What … do.例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon. (3).问什么时候。When.例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going to bed?

  6、同义句:be going to = will I am going to go swimming tomorrow. = I will go swimming tomorrow.

  五、一般过去时

  1.一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。 (yesterday, last year/week.)

  2.Be 动词在一般过去时中的变化: ⑴am 和 is 在一般过去时中变为 was。 (was not=wasn’t) ⑵are 在一般过去时中变为 were。 (were not=weren’t) ⑶带有 was 或 were 的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和 is, am, are 一样,即否定句在 was 或 were 后加 not,一般疑问句把 was 或 were 调到句首。

  3.句中没有 be 动词的一般过去时的句子 否定句:didn’t +动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday. 一般疑问句:在句首加 did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形。如:Did Jim go home yesterday? 特殊疑问句: ⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形?如: What did Jim do yesterday?

  ⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式?如:Who went to home yesterday? 动词过去式变化规则: 1. 一般在动词末尾加-ed, 如: pull-pulled, cook-cooked 2. 结尾是 e 加 d, 如: taste-tasted 3. 末 尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加-ed,如: stop-stopped

  4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变 y 为 i, 再加-ed,如:study-studied 5. 不规则动词的变化:

  am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, fly-flew, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat

  六、情景运用

  1. 问路、指路 Excuse me. Where’s the _______, please? Go straight on. / Turn left. / Turn right.

  2.询问对方正在做什么 What are you doing? What is he/she doing? What are they doing?

  3. 询问对方是否要吃某种食物 Do you want some _______?

  4. 询问对方的能力 Can you _____?

  5. 谈论将要做的事情 What are you going to do? 6. 向别人要东西吃 Can I have some ______ ? 7. 介绍某人

  I’m _______ He’s/She’s ___________ They’re __________

  Yes, please.

  No, thank you.

  Yes, I can.

  No, I can’t.

  I’m/We’re going to _________

  Yes, you can.

  Sorry, you can’t.

  This is_______ 8. 谈论周一至周日将要做的事 What will you do on Monday? Will you ______ on Monday? 9. 做天气预报 It will be hot/cold/sunny/windy. 10. 做比较 如: Sam is older than Daming. It will snow/rain. I’ll_______ on Monday Yes, I will. No, I won’t.

  七、人称代词及对应的形容词性物主代词

  第一人称 第二人称 we 我们 第三人称 you 你 you 你们 your 你的 he 他 she 她 it 它 they 他们 her 她的

  人称代词: I 我 物主代词

  my 我的 its 它的

  our 我们的 their 他们的 us 我们 you you

  your 你们的

  his 他的

  宾 主 宾

  格

  me 我 we

  you 你 she her he him your yours

  him 他 it it her hers

  her 她 they them his his its its

  it 它

  them 他们

  格: I

  格: me us

  形容词性物主代词: my 名词性物主代词: mine

  our ours

  their theirs

  八、形容词和副词的比较级

  形容词比较级在句子中的运用:两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词 than。

  比较级前面可以用 more, a little 来修饰表示程度。than 后的人称代词用主格 (1) 一般在形容词或副词后+er 如: tall---taller, strong---stronger, (2) 双写最后一个字母,再+er 如: big---bigger, fat--- fatter, (3) 把 y 变 i,再+er 如: heavy---heavier, early---earlier (4) 不规则变化:如: well--better, much/many-more,

  九、缩略形式

  I’m = I am don’t=do not can’t =can not

  you’re = you are doesn’t=does not isn’t=is not

  she’s = she is it’s = it is we’ll=we will

  he’s = he is who’s =who is

  十、情态动词

  can 引导的句型:表示有能力做某事 can 后面的动词要用原形。如: 1. What can you do? I can sweep the floor. I can cook the meals. 2. I can water the flowers. 3. Can you make the bed? No, I can’t.

  4. Can you use a computer? Yes, I can. 5. How can I get to Zhongshan Park? You can go by the No. 15 bus.

  重点词汇归纳: come back go to school in a hurry shopping list how much in the afternoon the British Museum .the London Eye last Sunday/night/year go to the park wait for half a kilo at the weekend take a photo Big Ben give out go home hurry up make a list how many .in the morning take photos the Great Wall be careful

  too many half past seven stand up on the farm go out play table tennis three days ago watch TV foreign language a Chinese teacher .English/ Chinese food library card look at in the west of China in the north of China a good idea

  run fast get up do morning exercises all day say hello to many years ago live in how about=what about study/work hard

  play football sit down play chess of course play basketball ten years ago a lot of=lots of talk about an English teacher

  by bus/plane/car/train/ship/bike at school /.at home find out have /has got in the south of China every year/day list send an email at the library be good at in the east of China

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